Have you ever thought of diving into pepper farming in Nigeria? Get practicable ways to activate your thought into cash by starting a profitable pepper farm.
Pepper Farming has been one of the Agribusinesses coming into a more explorable aspect of spices and vegetable farming. Its culinary and overall health benefits have made it a-must-included spices that accompany everyone’s daily meal globally. Hence, there is a need to meet its diverse target of inclusion across all mixes by cultivating close to abundance in different parts of the world.
In Nigeria, pepper farming in Nigeria is mostly akin to the Northern part due to the belief that this area has the best composition of soil to grow it, but in recent times, it cultivation has developed to any part of the country and it can be transported across different regions, states, cities, and villages across the country. Therefore, there is a bigger opportunity from farming to sales and transportation to co-create abundance. As an individual, you can man any of the supply chains – from on-site buying of harvested pepper and transportation to sales point, to seedling raising and sales, to the biggest part of the chain, which is marketing.
Optimal profitability in pepper farming requires a profound knowledge of agricultural technologies and best practices by the intending farmer. Here are the practicable information needed to make huge profit in Pepper Farming in Nigeria
Varieties of Pepper
There are about four common varieties of pepper in Nigeria – Chilli (Ata ijosi), Habanero (Atarodo), Sweet pepper (Tatashe) and cayenne (Shombo). The highest-priced among the four is sweet pepper because of its uniqueness in taste and usefulness for meal decoration. To add, it is not pepperish which makes most of the Easterners and many people around the country prefer it. Habanero (atarodo) is the most utilized. However, all these varieties are needed for its specific culinary functions.
Seed selection is based on the climatic conditions and type of diseases and pests prevalent in the farm location. The most reliable seed is Hybrid Pepper Seed with its high yielding and disease resistant qualities. Quality seed coupled with good agricultural practices on an acre of land can yield 3-5 tonnes of pepper.
It requires a warm climate and well-drained sandy-loamy soil. Optimum soil moisture and pH. It does not grow well on alkaline soil.
To cut costs, you may lease the farmland if you do not have an inherited or bought farmland. Greenhouse technology works greatly for Pepper farming, however, some combinations of these practices are capable of producing comparable results like this technology.
Make sure you have a source of water for your farmland. To work smarter, Drip Irrigation is recommended. Weeding, burning, and ploughing can be done on the farmland. Soil fertility can be increased using organic manure; poultry faeces, pig faeces or fertilizer. Spread on the farmland for seven (7) days before making beds.
Seedling Production and Transplanting
Carve out about 100cm x 100cm with an inter-row space of 70cm from the big lot of the fertile farmland for nursery beds. Fumigate the nursery with chemical to kill pest, weeds, and disease which might subsequently interfere with the plant. Water the soil and cover the soil with net or palm fronds to slow down evaporation. Leave for 8-10 days before broadcasting seed on the bed. Water the bed for some hours before seed broadcast to soften the bed. Thin the seedlings by 4 x 4cm apart after twenty days of seed broadcast. There should be an elevated net or palm fronds shade for about 45 days to protect it from hot sun and heavy downpour which might affect yield. Remove the shade after this stated days. Water the seedlings regularly in the cool period of the day but avoid excess water. Similarly, water the bed on the day you’d transplant to maintain the lively appearance of the seedling and to ease uprooting. Make sure the seedlings are hardened before transplanting. The seedling can maintain 50-60cm row spacing on the farmland.
Disease and Pest Control
During the nursery stage and on the farmland, fungicide and pesticide should be sprayed regularly to prevent diseases and pests and ensure maximum yield.
Weeding and Fertilizer Application
Weeding can be done thrice before harvest. Fertilizer; NPK can be applied 2weeks after transplanting. The other application should be during the early stage of flowering.
The good news about pepper farming is it’s multiple and continuous harvests. Pepper matures within 3-5 months depending on variety, and harvesting can last up to 3months. Chilli plants can live and bear fruit for 2-3years. So, it has a high Return of Investment. This can be your gold.
Pepper farming in Nigeria PDF
For further reading check this free PDF guide on pepper farming in Nigeria. Click here
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